Teori Sosiologi Modern (Modern Sociological Theory) is a book by George Ritzer, a prominent American sociologist and professor at the University of Maryland. The book, first published in 1996 and revised in 2021, provides a comprehensive overview of the major schools and developments in sociological theory from the early years to the present day. The book covers topics such as structural functionalism, neo-Marxism, symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, exchange theory, feminist theory, micro-macro integration, agency-structure integration, and postmodern social theory. The book also includes biographical sketches of influential sociologists and metatheoretical analyses of sociological theories.
The book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students of sociology, as well as researchers and scholars who are interested in the history and current state of sociological theory. The book is written in a clear and accessible style, with examples and illustrations to help explain complex concepts and ideas. The book also provides critical evaluations of various theories and perspectives, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as their implications for social research and practice.
Teori Sosiologi Modern George Ritzer is available in PDF format for download from various online sources. The PDF version of the book has the same content and layout as the printed version, but it is more convenient and affordable for readers who prefer digital formats. The PDF version can be read on any device that supports PDF files, such as computers, tablets, smartphones, or e-readers. The PDF version can also be printed out for personal use or reference.
Teori Sosiologi Modern George Ritzer is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to learn more about the history and development of sociological theory. The book offers a comprehensive and balanced overview of the main schools and trends in sociology, as well as insightful critiques and comparisons of different theories and perspectives. The book is suitable for both academic and general audiences who are interested in sociology and social theory.
In this article, we will review some of the main themes and arguments of Teori Sosiologi Modern George Ritzer. We will focus on four chapters of the book: Chapter 2, which discusses the early years of sociological theory; Chapter 7, which examines the varieties of neo-Marxian theory; Chapter 13, which explores the contemporary theories of modernity; and Chapter 16, which analyzes the emergence of postmodern social theory.
Chapter 2: A Historical Sketch of Sociological Theory: The Early Years
This chapter traces the origins and development of sociological theory from the Enlightenment to the early 20th century. The chapter highlights the contributions of four founding fathers of sociology: Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, and Emile Durkheim. The chapter also discusses the role of women in early sociology, such as Harriet Martineau and Marianne Weber.
The chapter argues that sociological theory emerged as a response to the social changes and challenges brought about by the Industrial Revolution, urbanization, democracy, and secularization. The chapter shows how each of the founding fathers developed their own theoretical frameworks and concepts to explain and critique the new social order. The chapter also compares and contrasts their different perspectives and approaches to sociology.
The chapter concludes by noting that sociological theory in the early years was characterized by a tension between positivism and anti-positivism, as well as between macro and micro levels of analysis. The chapter also points out that sociological theory in this period was largely Eurocentric and male-dominated, and that it reflected the biases and assumptions of its time.
Chapter 7: Varieties of Neo-Marxian Theory
This chapter reviews some of the major developments and debates in neo-Marxian theory in the 20th century. The chapter focuses on three strands of neo-Marxian theory: Hegelian Marxism, critical theory, and analytical Marxism. The chapter also discusses the ideas of Antonio Gramsci and Jurgen Habermas.
The chapter argues that neo-Marxian theory emerged as a reaction to the limitations and failures of classical Marxism, especially in light of the rise of fascism, Stalinism, and consumerism. The chapter shows how neo-Marxian theorists attempted to revise and update Marx's theory by incorporating insights from philosophy, psychology, culture, and history. The chapter also evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of neo-Marxian theory in terms of its explanatory power, empirical validity, normative relevance, and political implications.
The chapter concludes by noting that neo-Marxian theory remains influential and relevant in contemporary sociology, especially in areas such as social movements, globalization, media, culture, and identity. The chapter also suggests that neo-Marxian theory can benefit from dialogue and integration with other sociological theories and perspectives.
Chapter 13: Contemporary Theories of Modernity
This chapter examines some of the recent theories and debates about modernity and its consequences for society. The chapter focuses on three themes: hyperrationality, McDonaldization, and Americanization; modernity and the Holocaust; and multiple modernities. The chapter also discusses the ideas of Zygmunt Bauman and Shmuel Eisenstadt.
The chapter argues that modernity is a complex and contested phenomenon that has both positive and negative effects on society. The chapter shows how some theorists emphasize the rationalizing and homogenizing aspects of modernity, while others highlight its diversity and plurality. The chapter also analyzes how modernity relates to issues such as violence, genocide, morality, culture, identity, and democracy.
The chapter concludes by noting that contemporary theories of modernity offer different perspectives and insights on the nature and direction of social change. The chapter also suggests that contemporary theories of modernity need to address the challenges posed by globalization, postmodernity, and environmental crisis.
Chapter 16: Structuralism, Poststructuralism,
and the Emergence of Postmodern Social Theory
This chapter explores some of the key developments